Mobile Phones as ‘Life Science devices’

Mobile Phone as a Universal Life Science Device

Mobile Phones as ‘Life Science Device’.

1.Mobile Phone is becoming a life science device that can be provided with large spectrum of great features in addition to communication and multi-media services.

2.Voice, Data and Multimedia Communication and possible other Life Science technology, features, products and services.

3.Universal device as Camera, Recording device, Radio, TV, Music player, Videos and Games.

4.Internet access directly and as Computer or digital projectors as accessory device for remote presentation, Video conference etc.

5.Calendar, Calculator, Mini Computer, Clock and Reminder service.

6.Personal ID device.

7.Path finder and location finder.

8.Various location based personal &e-commerce services.

9.Warning device, Weather, Climate, Govt. announcements in disasters.

10.Keys for Cars and Car parks, Home, Safe box, Cabinets etc.

11.Home / Office surveillance device.

12.Remote control Home appliances. Fridge, TV, A/C, Room heater, Water heater, Lights & Fans, Widows / Curtains etc.

13.Snooping device. Remote dial in with #Auto answer for Voice & Video recording with Turntable seating for wider view in homes or other private premises..

14.Password keeper and Communicator for NFC feature.

15.E-wallet and Money Management tool.

16.Mobile for money transactions in various Banks and special purpose ATMs.

17.Direct or autonomous payment of Taxi fare, Parking and Toll charges.

18.On the spot payments for Vending machines, Dial a Drink, Dial a ticket, Dial for Money.

19.For financial inclusion with Direct Benefit Transfer to beneficiaries and Micro Finance support.

20.Mobile with NFC for remote shopping and remote payments.

21.Personal Health Monitor and Service support. Body temperature, blood pressure, Glucose and Cholesterol with attachable wrist band and prods.

22.Mobiles can also be made to interact with digital capsule embedded in the body cavity of anyone to receive health indicator data and initiate attention or auto call to physician.

23.Environment sensor; Temperature, UV rays, pollution and air contamination.

24.Universal Emergency Support system, interworking with Wrist band or a Finger Ring device.

25.Interactive services: Is there any message, Read it out for me (Text to voice) and Dictate and Send reply (Voice to Text feature)

26.Voice interactive phone while bored & lonely, may be, while driving alone.

Hey, I love you: How are you today, Tell me a joke, Sing a song,

What is in the news,

Remind me the shopping list,

Where can I get a Pizza nearby,

What are my appointments today,

What is the weather forecast, Is it raining in our place,

Where is my wife now.

Bored Yar, Let us play Antakshary – You start.

Tired , Call me after half an hour.

etc., etc. . . .

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Money through Mobile (mTm) for Inclusive growth

Money through Mobile (mTm) for Inclusive growth.

Short link: By Abraham Paul. P.

Virtual money is best handled by Virtual banking system.

There are no two opinions about the urgent need of narrowing the gap between rich and poor by bringing in Inclusive growth. One of the ways to realize it is through Financial Inclusion of the huge un-banked population both in urban and rural areas across the country. Ensuring banking service to all through existing mode of banking system is  an unworkable proposition. Huge volume of low value bank accounts as envisaged in Prime Ministers Jan Dhan Yojana will lead most banks to collapse due to severe HR constraints and gross Customer dissatisfaction.

Why banks if can be done without? Banks both Public and Private are white Elephants always with an eye on profit over service.  A better option is to cater the needs of the poor using technology solutions such as Money through Mobile (mTm) creating virtual banks exclusively for this as explained in the presentation: -

Press Ctrl Key and click on the link below to view a power point presentation on this.

Money through Mobile (mTm) for Inclusive Growth (N)

My blog on ‘Virtual Banked Universal Money Management by Phone.’ is in the link:

Also please see my response to Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Consultation Paper on USSD-based Mobile Banking Services for Financial Inclusion For more information if any, please contact the author: Abraham Paul. P     Tweet @PA_Paul

Posted in IT based services, Life science technologies, Money through Mobile (mTm), Politics & Governance, Social and Community affairs | Leave a comment

Impact of transition from Voice to Data and Multimedia Business in Telecom: An analysis.

Originally posted on papaulsblog:

Impact of  transition from Voice to Data and Multimedia Business in Telecom: An analysis.

 Author: P. Abraham Paul.     Telecom Consultant

Ex: MD & CEO  FCOMNET Futuregroups / V.P (TS) SPCNL, SIEMENS ICN / GM & SMT TBG, BPL Mobile. India / TES (I) DOT India.
e-mail:  Tweet @PA_Paul     15 March 2004


The past few years saw much hype due to over-projecting the business potential of 3G Telecom, Voice over IP and growth of INTERNET dependent customer products, e-Commerce and other e-businesses. Realization came later that most of these high tech propositions, though conceptually attractive and forward looking, were going to take time to develop, huge investment and coordinated efforts of various business & technology providers and regulators to convert these to marketable and revenue earning products.

3G and other New Generation Networks are great advancement in Information Communication Technology, but concepts alone cannot be…

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Segregate Service Provision from Network Operation and use Universal Numbering Plan.

Originally posted on papaulsblog:

Segregate Service Provision from Network Operation and use Universal Numbering Plan to usher in for Multi-media Telecom services.

Introduction: In spite of the few hiccups in the beginning, the privatization has pushed Telecom business in India making the services available and affordable to common man. However, giving license to more and more companies would not be ideal at this point of time.

There was a time the monopoly telecom provider could not meet the needs of a growing country. Things have changed; there are enough Service Providers now who can jointly meet the growing need. 

Too many new Networks put pressure on the business viability of the industry, the availability of spectrum etc. Lowering of returns and margins will kill the initiative to innovate and provide more products, features and facilities without  too much increase in cost of usage.

Another important aspect is that, with rolling out High Bit rate data products, the…

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Letter to Honorable Prime Minister of India

Letter   to Honorable Prime Minister of India

P. Abraham Paul.  15 January 2014

Short link

Please see my suggestions and ideas for consideration.

The prime cause of poverty in India especially among the majority rural mass is the lack of environment to generate the minimum income needed for livelihood, from agriculture, employment or other resources.

India needs a different type of democracy, knitting of a secularist nation with the threads of participation of the entire mass, one of the country’s big strengths, in every sphere of national growth thus realizing national integration in the course.

Most of the unrest and disharmony happening every where, may it be of social, political, various disruptions caused by actions and counter actions of different ethnic groups and communities turning into religious extremism, are due to the shift in the focus of life among the mass especially the village youth, due to desperation fermenting of the prevailing situation that deprive them options and opportunities to grow up and lead a normal life.

To alleviate it, the primary focus shall be on the uplift of the 750 odd million rural population, by providing them basic amenities such as a home to live, clean water, cheap electricity and fuel, primary healthcare, free basic education, effective public distribution system, good roads and other infrastructure, and a minimum assured income from agricultural or trade related occupation for a moderate livelihood. When it is done, none will follow miscreants. Priority for next ten years shall be the management of human resources especially in the rural areas on a ‘War footing’ agenda as in the situation of a “State of Emergency”.

To bring real change, it is necessary to enable participation and sense of ownership for common man in the nation building process and plug every means of corruption at all levels.  Experiences thus far have proven that current methods of governance and government machinery are not capable to achieve these. A strong will and conviction for a major shift in the policies of the Government for a changed social outlook are needed to push the country forward.

Please see my blog ‘The Bitter Pills for India Reprieve’   Tweet:  @PA_Paul

Posted in Politics & Governance, Social and Community affairs | 1 Comment

Autonomous Road Toll and Vehicle Parking Charging

Autonomous Road Toll and Vehicle Parking Charging

Intellectual property of P. Abraham Paul, Futuregroups – FCOMNET, India.

   Specializing in Telecom & IT:  Engineering, Services, Training and Consultancy.


Innovative & first of its kind, state of the art, all-in- one system for control and charging of

Road Toll & Parking fee, traffic control and crisis management using the latest in Wireless Technology and e- Payment method.

2. Objective of this paper: Explain the system and its operation which will be of benefit for the Public, the Government, the Road Traffic Authorities, the Municipalities and Technology Service Providers.

Topics covered are: Concept, Technology/Network elements, Principle of operation,  

 Features, Benefits and advantages and Business case.

2.1. The Concept:

This unique concept will replace current Road Toll fee and Parking fee collection methods with more generalized and simplified method of charging the usage public roads and spaces for commuting and parking of vehicles. 

The proprietary idea.

The key break through is in the unique idea of “Uniform Charging for Road and Parking space usage with Built-in Safeguard against non compliance and fraud”.

2.1.1 It shall be mandatory for every vehicle in the area covered to become part of the system from the time of registration until the vehicle is de-registered and discard.

2.1.2 Road and Parking space usage for driving and parking will be charged uniformly. The tariff will differ, based on the location of the vehicle and the time of the day, day of the year and type of the vehicle. The tariff may also differ according to the classifications of road / parking space, and type and purpose of the vehicle.

2.1.3 Revenue loss due non-compliance or fraud is prevented by unique in-built system feature, making it compulsory for the vehicle owner to keep the device in the vehicle in live-and-logged-in condition. Any discontinuity is promptly detected by the system, and charging is continued according to last available information and aggregated later.  In case of prolonged discontinuity the vehicle owner and authorities are alerted.

Tampering or detaching the device is prevented by adopting tamper proof fixing and sealing of the device with the vehicle and making the device unserviceable in case of tampering.

The system can be shared by private parking space providers in apartments and other parking lots on revenue share basis.

Method of fee collection shall be on Pre-paid or Post paid basis, identical to the method of paying telephone charges.  

The Sociological hurdle which can hamper the proposal.  A major hurdle in implementing this is perhaps the possible civic objection about invading the privacy of the vehicle user.  However, the matter is identical to the mobile phone users, with the exemption that the mobile can be switched off or kept away to defer detection.

Wireless network. The service is proposed to be implemented with GPS networking identical to  vehicle tracking and navigation service. GPS based system is preferred as GSM/CDMA/WiFi net work cannot provide the precise location identification required for the proposed service.

Even a heavy vehicle entering unallowed speed lane could be identified by GPS based system.

The high deployment expense of a special purpose GPS system and cost per interaction over GPS link should not a deterrent, as the revenue expected is sizably huge to overcome these costs by leasing the transponders or sending up own GPS satellites.

Large network coverage: Three Geo Synchronous Satellites needed for the Global Positioning System can cover a wide area in the region.

Service Providers: Municipal/Road Traffic Authority itself can establish, own and operate the system with revenue sharing or other arrangement with the GPS / Network Service Provider.

Value added Services: The system, suitably networked and programmed, can provide high revenue potential Value Added Services.

Useful for various Administration needs and Crisis management.

Statistics and information of every vehicle and its movement could be readily extracted from the system opening out immense possibilities for various administrations.

2.2  Network elements:

The system is based on Wireless Telephony Application implemented over GPS network.

2.2.1 User end device.

A special purpose GPS terminal device in the vehicle identical to navigation device.

2.2.2. GPS Network:

-          Exclusive networking over GPS links which provide coverage of virtually all roads and  

      parking spaces in the entire City.

-     Tunnels and basement parking areas are to be covered with repeaters & antennae. 

-          In a business point of view, the proposed system has very high revenue potential and

      profit margin and there for exclusive  transponder or even a special purpose satellite

      could be procured for this business.

2.2.3.   Core System.

A powerful application system with GPS interface and high speed high volume signaling capability between the device in the vehicle and the system over GPS Network.

2.2.4.   Intelligent Network System.

    Exclusive IN system linked with core system for signal processing and  prepaid / post paid charging and statistics generation.

2.2.5.   Location finder system based on digital location mapping.

2.2.6.  Administration and Billing system:-

    For customer data handling, tariff generation, accounting, billing.

2.2.7.   System connectivity.  

    Core system shall have connectivity with GSM Wireless and Land line systems for

    information interchange, road traffic control and  Crisis management.    

Schematic showing the networking of one of the three Geo Synchronous Satellite of the Global Positioning System. (For explanatory purpose only.)

Press CTRL key and click on the caption below to see a presentation on

Road Toll and Vehicle Parking Charging

3. Principle of operation.

3.1 User end device.

A sealed in tamper proof special purpose terminal similar to GPS supported navigation device

The device is designed to be live in non-stop operation mode through out its life.

The device is fitted in the dash board and powered by the vehicle’s battery for continuous operation. A lamp indication to show that the device is active and logged in to the core system.

Starts flashing of the lamp and beeps if the vehicle enters a prohibited or restricted area.

The device is identified by the vehicle’s registration number which is computer programmed

in the device by the service provider at the time of installation and protected by password.

The device is programmed to interact with the central system via GPS link to continuously

send and Update Vehicles identity and location information to the core system.

Prevention of revenue loss: If the device logs out of the network in black spots or willfully or inadvertently, the core system detects it and charging is continued to avoid revenue loss. After a predetermined duration, the vehicle owner is informed over land line or mobile communication link and the authority concerned is alerted to initiate penal action for willful manipulation or fraud.   

Detaching the devise or any form of tampering will make the device permanently unserviceable and will have to be replaced through the authority concerned.

Elimination of manual monitoring: The above key feature of the system ensure continuity of operation and eliminate need of any form of external monitoring processes, manual or otherwise which considerably reduce the operating cost and revenue loss.

3.2 The central system.

At the time of registration, the registration authority collects and feed in all necessary information into the service provider’s administrative and billing system which in turn fed into the data base of core system.

From that point the system location registers will have the data base of all the devices and its geographic locations.

The device is kept in continuous logged in condition and charged according to the location information. Any change in location triggers the Intelligent Network system to initiate appropriate changes in charging.

If the device log off due to any reason, the system continues to charge based on the last available location information and aggregates with the new location information when logged in again thereby safeguarding loss of revenue by willful action or other wise. This feature is very important as in most of the cases the device will log off and remain in that condition during parking in shielded parking lots. The revenue collected for parking in Private parking lots could be shared with the parking space owners.

Core system monitor and identify violations of traffic rules and pass on information to the authorities and a lamp flashing and beeping sound are activated to warn the driver.

Various voice messages also could be delivered in the device. 

In addition, a message over a voice call and SMS are sent to the vehicle owner’s mobile phone to inform the situation by the Core system.

Penalty charges are automatically levied and statistics are maintained for all violations.

Facility is provided for the authorities and vehicle owner for on line access of the statistics related to the details of vehicle number, location, time, duration involved and type or incident  penalty imposed etc.

4. Salient features:

4.1 Highlights of the proposed system.

Click on the caption below to see a presentation on

Road Toll and Vehicle Parking Charging

No need of Toll gates and Parking ticketing machines.

Universal application covers of all roads and parking spaces.

No hassles of road traffic planning and toll gates.

User friendly, effortless and hassle free service for vehicle users.         

More features, products and value added services.

Less operating expenses.

No need of external monitoring as far as toll and parking fee payments are concerned..

Need less patrolling and supervision of violation of wrong parking etc.

Efficient, effortless revenue collection. Less fraud, less litigation.

More revenue from full time coverage of all roads and parking spaces.

Private Parking Space providers also can avail on revenue sharing basis.  

One system can provide service in many cities/countries.

With one core system it is possible to network areas of different countries and provide service by suitable networking.  For example, a core system in a city in can provide service across all Emirates and can provide service to all cities across the country.  

4.2 Flexible tariff plans.

      Charging options for road usage and parking viz.,

         –  Location based charging.

         –  Occasion based charging.

         –  Time dependent charging.

         –  User specific charging eg. higher tariff for commercial vehicles.   

         –  Monthly and annual charging plans.

   Many more options based on different criteria.

4. 3. General features

  • Efficient, effortless revenue collection.
  • Need much less patrolling and easy to monitor.
  • Less fraud, less litigation. 
  • User friendly, effortless and hassle free service for vehicle users.
  • Discourages unnecessary occupation of public roads and public parking places.
  • Traffic restriction in high premium roads by imposing high tariff during busy hours.  
  • More features, products and value added services.
  • No need to have manual monitoring of parking usage.
  • More revenue from full time coverage of all roads and parking spaces. 

4.4. Benefits to the public.

  • No hassles of parking machine. No need to move away from the Vehicle toget the parking ticket and no toll fee gates.  Everything is done automatically.
  • Different tariff depending on location. Same tariff during commuting and parking.
  • Vehicle can choose low tariff routes for frequent commuting.
  • More flexibility in finding and using parking area.
  • Automatic timing and Charging based on the location and actual duration ofparking in terms of minutes and seconds.
  • Users cost could be subsidized with revenue earned from Value Added Services and revenue from service rendered to other agencies and the savings in operation cost.
  • Automatic warning of road restrictions and violations.
  • No human error in charging.
  • Convenience of Pre-paid Payment with different recharging facility.
  • Parking subscription can be used all over the country.
  • Facility available during roaming in other cities where such facility exists.
  • Monitoring facility of every vehicle movement, can help to eliminate vehicle theft.
  • Terrorist activities can be contained to certain extent.

4.5. Charging for parking in spaces of Private Parking space providers.

Special arrangement of charging:

Identification of private parking space with exclusive code.

Parking allowed only with parking space owners approval.

Individual tariff plans and exclusive charging options for every parking space provider.

Customer dependent charging.

Revenue sharing facility with the GSM and Parking system Service providers.

Payments gets debited directly to the parking providers account.

Verification by parallel accounting with data collected on own servers.

Provision for exclusive GSM cell sites in the parking lots.

5.1 High revenue potential for network providers and the system service providers.

For the satellite system providers for GPS network provision.

For service providers who set up and provide service.

For the Road Traffic authorities, Municipal authorities.

For private Parking Service Providers.

Roaming charges.

The system and the network can be programmed to deliver SMS / Data to the device.

5.2 Value added services:

Many Value Added products/services can be developed and marketed using the same application system and micro and macro e-payments technology.

For example:-    

          Navigation device.

          Taxi and Fleet monitoring and control.

          Control of traffic of vehicles in restricted routes, areas and spaces.

          Device can be used for access permission in restricted entry areas.

          Other Micro/Macro e-payments such as getting serviced from food and

      beverage vending  machines, different ticket  vending machines etc.   

By adding plug-ons in the device and giving access to external servers, more and more versatile products are possible, viz.

Value Added products/services such as interactive location based services, information of climate, traffic situation, and entertainments such as music, jokes, astrology, video, live chat service to avoid monotony of solo driving.

6.  The Business Case.

6.1. The constraints:

a) As GPS signaling works on Line-of-sight principle, there will be many black spots where connectivity could not be retained.

b) As the service is compulsory for all vehicle owners across the entire area, cost to the user need to be equal or less than the current expense on Road Toll and Parking fee. Expense on this for those in the villages and rural areas shall be negligible.

c) At the same time the initial cost to the service provider for GPS satellites and network and implementation will be very high. Initially, the cost of interaction over GPS links will be higher than the revenue it can generate.  

6.2.  Potential areas that can offset above constraints.

a) The problem of black spots is resolved by ensuring that charging is continued according to last location information and aggregated with new location information when going out of the black spot and logged in again. For the night band falling in this period of discontinuity, only night tariff will be applicable. The tariff applicable in the road and parking case in the same area being same this feature takes care of charging without much discrepancy, during parking in shielded parking areas like private parking places / residences / malls etc.

In case of prolonged discontinuity of over 24 hrs or (project dependent) the vehicle owner is informed by sending prerecorded SMS or voice message to their telecom connection. The authority is alerted and given the details by electronic means.

b)The key is in the high volume user base inherent in the business plan. Revenue contribution from entire vehicle population being mandatory, the high business volume with an annual growth of 15 to 20 percent, are expected to over ride the above constrains.

The cost of Technology systems and network are also likely to come down in due course.

c) There is considerable scope of additional revenue generation from various Value Added Services. Revenue could be generated from providing Navigation aid, Surface / Aviation / Marine Fleet Management etc. services to private and government agencies.

Sharing of investment and operation cost would be possible with Government Authorities for usage of the system for administrative, traffic management and crisis management facilities.

A single core system can service entire area of the country and other regions.

Service can be extended to other MENA region using same GPS and Core system.

Linking the core system with Fixed and Wireless phone networks can provide additional sources of business.

Owning or leasing of Geo Synchronous Satellite as needed for the facility would bring down the cost per interaction and usage.  

6.  Revenue calculation in nutshell.

Coverage of all vehicles and the entire area generate high business volume.

Revenue from value added services also will be substantial.

Therefore, the road usage/parking tariff proposed is low and affordable to general public.


Roads and associated parking areas are classified as: 

Locality                                                             *Commuting/Parking fee per hour (INR)

                                                                           Btn.0700-1900 Hrs     Btn.1900–0700 Hrs

1. Type A.  Premium areas                                           2.00                        1.00

2. Type B.  Highways, Elevated roads                          1.00                        0.50

3. Type C.  Suburban roads                                          0.60                        0.30

4. Type D.  Residential areas.                                       0.20                        0.10

5. Type E. Remote areas / villages                               0.10                        0.05


*Tariff will be half the above rates is proposed during Fridays and National holidays.


a)      30% Percentage of Vehicle population are in Type A areas during day time band.

b)      15% of the vehicle population are in each of Other Type areas during day time band.

c)      60% of the vehicle population are in Type D areas during night time band.

d)      10% each of the vehicle population are in Other Type areas during night time band.

Day Revenue calculation: Revenue in INR per 100 vehicle during day band.

During the 12 hours of day time band 0700  to 1900 hours.

Case (a) above:     12 x 2.00 x 30   =      720             (12 hours at INR 2.00 for 30% of vehicles)

Case (b1) above:   12 x 1.00 x 20   =      240

Case (b2) above:   12 x 0.60 x 20   =      144

Case (b3) above    12 x 0.20 x 15   =         36

Case (b4) above    12 x 0.10x 15    =         18

Total for the day band                            1158.00


Night revenue calculation: Revenue in INR per 100 vehicles during night band.

 During the 12 hours of night time band 1900 hrs to 0700 hours.

Case (c) above       12 x 1 x      60   =       72

Case (d1) above:    12 x 0.5  x  10   =       60

Case (d2) above:    12 x 0.3   x 10   =       36

Case (d3) above      12 x 0.10 x 10   =      12

Case (d4) above      12 x 0.05 x  10   =       6

Total for the night band                            186.00


Revenue:  A very low tariff is proposed to avoid hardship for users. The shortcoming is expected to be compensated with revenue from Value added services and from service given to other agencies.

Total day and night = 1158.00+ 186.00= INR 1344 per 100 vehicle per day

i.e. INR 13.44 per vehicle per day.

Revenue per vehicle per annum (assuming 290 working days and 75 holidays):  

INR365x13.44 = INR 4905.60

Vehicle owner’s expense per month on an average  = INR4905.60/12 = INR 408.8 (Includes night  fee)

Expense per month who use free night parking space  = INR 352.25

The above amount is much below the current expense on toll & parking fee.

Revenue per million vehicle population per annum  =  INR 4905.60 million

Revenue from Value added Services will be much more than this.

As the business grow, the cost of the Satellites and GPS networking will consume only a minor portion the revenue.

 Expenditure and profit: Initial CAPEX and OPEX and profit etc depend on various factors and business tie ups and hence not discussed here.

P. Abraham Paul.


PH: +914712446644 M: +919446322644



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Voting by all and Right of not to vote

Voting by all and right of not to Vote.

Author: Abraham Paul.

The inherent perils of Democracy. Individuality in thoughts and unrelenting desire and self centric attitudes to gain superiority over the other being the basic instincts that differentiate the human race in an individual and as various collective communities of identical interests, a political setup that envisages a country be ruled by a government of the all the people, by all the people and for all the people is more an utopian myth than a realizable reality.

Therefore, it is too ambitious to wish that India, a very young federal nation inheriting long embedded ethnic variations, diverse cultures, social structures, linguistic differences, and highly dominating regional beliefs and interests, to become such an utopian democratic nation too soon.

In practical terms, democracy means not a government by all but a government of the majority. Therefore, such governments are tend to become majority opinion biased and the interest of the minority would naturally be sidelined.

In India there are basically two types of majority vote banks; both having sets and subsets of the other.

i. Majority religion based. By sensitizing the malleable in the majority religion, the power mongers can easily polarize the majority religious community as a means to come to power; which though democratic in principle, but often cannot be a secular one.

ii. The majority of socially and economically weak that readily exists in a developing nation. To get their votes in order to come to power they are appeased by every party showing the carrots that never to be, and ensures they continued to remain poor.

iii. A concoction of a mixture of the above two as being experienced in most part of the country.

The myth of majority rule. In the Indian context, about 50% of the total population only has voting rights, the remaining being below age and not yet brought in the eligible list due to various reasons. Of these, only about 50% cast their votes. Considering a vote split among three major contestants, parties that get between 9 to 11% of the total population get absolute majority and the party that can get 7 to 8 % of votes could become the largest single party. Therefore, 1% shift can tilt the scale either way. The sort of democracy that can be attained with this sort of arithmetic of people’s representation is anybody’s guess. This is one of the major perils of our type of democratic process.

On the face, it may appear that in order to safeguard the interest of all sections of the society, it is necessary to make a major change in the electoral system which can remove the indifference of the general public in exercising their franchise in various election processes. However, it is not very practical at this point of time and also may not achieve desired results for the following reasons:-

Firstly, it is necessary to find ways and means to ensure that all who are eligible to exercise their franchise cast their votes. For this every citizen should have their unique national identity cards, fully updated voting lists and foolproof and fail proof procedures to ensure fair and secret voting systems.

Voting shall be made on line. It is possible provide facility to do online voting using phones both mobile and land line on USSD bearer without the need of INTERNET.

See the schematic below.

Central online Voting ssytem.

Secondly, cent percent voting is not going to usher in secular governance by itself. As far as there is imbalance in the cast/religion based population and linguistic or regional interest based communities, and every political party resort to unethical ways, means and tactics to woo them to win elections, the chance of any member of any minority community getting elected is remote.

This fact will naturally influence the attitude of the minority communities, because for them, participation in electoral process is not only a futile effort but also voting for the candidate of the anti-interest group is like digging their own grave.

“Vote to nobody” Any sort of compulsion to vote will end up in more invalid votes or voters resort to  exercise “Section 49-O” of the constitution by “Vote for nobody” when they find no one suitable to vote for. In either case, it will not deliver the required outcome in securing secular governance unless polarization of votes based on religion / cast, linguistic, regionalist and other anti-secular groupings could be stopped which is not going to be an easy task.

Therefore, cent percent voting cannot ensure adequate representation in the government for every section of the community. On the other hand it gives more opportunity for the political parties capable of resorting to activities and tactics for mobilization of the majority community voters in their favor. Because of the above reasons, a majority based governance which may be politically correct in a democratic set up cannot be deemed as a secular government that will take care of the interest all sections of the population. One method is to give higher weightage in reverse proportion to the percentage of population for the minority community votes, which is not practical, and even can be construed as violation of equality of rights by the majority community.

In this context, Section “49-O” in the constitution as per the 1969 act, that empowers a person to go to the polling booth, confirm his identity, get his finger marked and convey the presiding election officer to place on record that he doesn’t want to vote for any of the contesting candidates. In a ward or the constituency, if a candidate wins say by 5000 votes, and there are more than 5000 of “49-O” votes, then that polling will be cancelled and re-polling is resorted. Not only that, but also the candidature of the contestants will be removed and they cannot contest in the re-polling, since people had already expressed their decision on them. This would change the way; of our whole political system, and political parties will be compelled to find and place candidates based on their merits and popularity and acceptability by general public.   Abraham Paul.

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